Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Hemoglobin Level among Kirkuk Technical Institute Students

Wafa Mahmood Jasim
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Keywords : Smoking, Blood Hemoglobin, Effect, Students
Medical Journal of Babylon  13:3 , 2016 doi:1812-156X-13-3
Published :25 December 2016

Abstract

Smoking is regarded as one of the most common unhealthy habits that affect human health because of its impacts on other body organs . The aim was to determine the impact of cigarettes smoking regarding the Hemoglobin level. among Kirkuk- technical institute students . Across- sectional study was done and a randomly selected sample (30 smokers and 30 non – smokers students from the same age between 19-20 years ) from different scientific depts. in Kirkuk Technical Institute after receiving their agreements to participate in the study which was started from 1/11/2015 till 1/2/2016 . A special questionnaire sheet prepared for this purpose and Hemoglobin estimation was done in primary health center which belongs to Kirkuk technical institute by using Sahli s haemoglobinometer which is the documented method used in primary health center . The study results show that 85.0 % living inside Kirkuk city and most of students from administrative dept .(70.0%) , 21 smoker students ( 70%) and 23 non- smoker students (76.7%) from were aware from the dangerous effect of smoking on human health . The study concluded that early establishment of smoking in young age group lead to more complications . The study recommended that advanced educational programs about the effect of smoking and its relation to diseases occurrence in other body organs and further future complications lead to death .

Introduction

Hemoglobin concentration in the blood is the most important frequently used laboratory indicators in clinical practice. Many studies reveled that hemoglobin level is affected by tobacco smoking [1] . The smoking hazards are widely recognized [2,3] although significant numbers of people still continue to smoke in the developing countries. [4, 5] The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the adult people reached up to 12% in Sudan [5] . On the other hand, in some developed countries, where the prevalence of cigarette smoking is twice that of Sudan, it started to decrease over the last year [6]. Cigarette smoking is a well known risk factor for respiratory diseases [7, 8], cardiovascular [9, 10] neoplastic [11, 12] and other health problems occurrence in the body [13, 14] . Smoking is one of the causes that leading to increase hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood , that is believed to be mediated by exposure of carbonmonoxide . Carbonmonoxide (CO) binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which is an inactive form of hemoglobin having no oxygen carrying capacity, shifting the Hb dissociation curve to the left side, and resulting in decrease in hemoglobin ability to deliver oxygen to the body tissue. Therefore to compensate this defect in oxygen delivering capacity, smokers people having a higher hemoglobin concentration level in their than non-smokers [15] . Smoking nowadays is mainly through industrially manufactured cigarettes and rolled paper form. The toxic substances in cigarettes causing damage for different organs in the body. WHO / reported the adjustments measures for HB concentration for smoker according to the numbers of cigarettes smoking / day (packets) as following: [16]

Materials and methods

Smoking is regarded as one of the most common unhealthy habits that affect human health because of its impacts on other body organs .

The aim was to determine the impact of cigarettes smoking regarding the   Hemoglobin level. among Kirkuk- technical institute students . Across- sectional study was done and a randomly selected   sample   (30 smokers and 30 non – smokers students from the same age between 19-20 years  ) from different scientific depts. in Kirkuk Technical Institute after receiving their agreements to participate in the study which was started from 1/11/2015 till 1/2/2016  .

A special questionnaire sheet prepared for this purpose and Hemoglobin estimation was done in primary health center which belongs to Kirkuk technical institute  by  using Sahli s haemoglobinometer which is the documented method used in primary health center .  The study results show that   85.0 % living inside Kirkuk city and most of students from administrative dept .(70.0%) , 21 smoker students ( 70%) and  23 non- smoker students (76.7%) from were aware from the dangerous effect of smoking on human health  .

The study concluded that early establishment of smoking in young age group lead to more complications .

The study recommended that advanced educational  programs about the effect of smoking and its relation to diseases occurrence in other body organs  and further future complications lead to death



Results

Table 1 : Socio demographic characteristics of the study students. Table 1 shows that 85.0 % of study students were living inside Kirkuk city and most of them from administrative dept .(70.0%). Table 2 shows that 70.0% of smoker students and 76.7 % of non smoker students were aware of smoking hazards and its effect on human health like continuous headache with generalized weakness and dyspnea (shortness of breath ) with a P- value = 0.559

Discussions

Concerning the perception of smoking impact on human body , the two groups of the study students were aware of its dangerous effect on human body organs. Similar study was done by Shah et al [20] in Hematology laboratory /Department of Pathology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS)in order to compare cigarette smoking effect on hemoglobin levels between two groups (smokers and nonsmokers). They found that there was no significant difference (p=0.15) between them. Regarding the number of cigarettes smoking / day , the current study showed that about half of them smoked between10-20 cigarettes. Skjelbakken et al [21] reported in their study among a cohort of 4, 159 Nerwegain men 20-49 year period, 20% of the men had stopped smoking. They mentioned that gradually smoking cessation decreased their hemoglobin by 0.10mmol/ l (1.6g/l) in comparison to those who never smoked. Further more , among people who still continue smoking , there was a positive increase in Hemoglobin concentration results in relation to dose response of cigarettes smoking per day Concerning the hemoglobin level , the current study showed that there was a high level of Hb in smoker students in comparison to non smoker students . Similar study was done by Mutwakil et al [22] in Omdurman military hospital – Khartoum - Sudan to determine liver function test and hemoglobin concentrations in smokers in spite of their present complain. They found that hemoglobin levels were higher (Mean ±SD = 13.5±2.0 g/dl) in smokers in comparison to the other group who are not smoker (Mean ±SD = 5.1±0.7 mg/dl and 12.8±1.9 g/dl, P= 0.048 and 0.001 respectively). In the last century, the data of the second national health and nutrition examination survey (NHNES) reported that generalized increased in the hemoglobin distribution curve in smokers people [23]. More update studies were able to describe significantly higher hemoglobin levels in the current people who are smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day in comparison to those who are never smokers [24]. ¬Ashish et al [25] conducted a study in Himalayan institute of Medical Sciences/ department of physiology / Swami Ram nagar, Dehradun, India to evaluate the relationship of tobacco-smoking with hemoglobin concentration and a total of 150 clinically healthy volunteers between the age group of 21- 55 years agreed to participate in the study. They found that the hemoglobin mean value was 14.5 ± 0.79in smokers people , while for non smokers was 13.27 ± 1.32 and the differences was highly statistically significant (p= 0.001) which indicated that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hemoglobin concentration level. Smoking is one of the important factors which should be take care of in the estimation of hemoglobin concentration . Cigarettes smoke contains nicotine, nitrogen oxides , carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and free radicals which are toxic substances and carcinogenic compounds harmful to human health [26]. Carbon monoxide ,which is found in cigarettes, has affinity for hemoglobin 245 times more than oxygen. Carboxy-haemoglobin is Hb+ CO=. The normal value for Carboxyhaemoglobin in non – smokers is < 1.5%, therefore , smokers can have Carboxyhaemoglobin levels ranging between 3-15% [27].

Conclusions

1-Awarness of smoking hazards seen in both smoker and nonsmoker students. 2- Dangerous of increasing hemoglobin level in blood is associated with increased dose of cigarettes smoking per / day. 3- Smoking is directly related with increased hemoglobin level in blood.

References

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