Factors Related to Smoking in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Baghdad City

Muna Abdul Kadhum Zeidan
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Keywords : Smoking, Factors, Pregnant women.
Medical Journal of Babylon  14:1 , 2017 doi:1812-156X-14-1
Published :16 July 2017


Smoking during pregnancy is significant health problems. Smoking is related to different adverse health effects consist of chronic respiratory diseases in children sudden infant death syndrome. To determine the rate of smoking in a sample of Pregnant women. To identify factors associated with the smoking habits (Maternal age, maternal education ,maternal occupation, gestational age, parity, socio economic status, health problems, and stress). A cross-sectional study conducted in Baghdad in Al- Karkh teaching hospital and Bab-Almoadham primary health center. Sampling was (non-probability convenient) & sample size was 276. The study started from 1st of June 2015 to 1st of October 2015. Data was collected by questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information. The result shows that mean age of the subjects was 29.02± 6.7 years, and the 49.6% were housewives; about (343.4%) of pregnant women in the sample were smokers. About (43.5%) of the pregnant women with smoker were mainly at 2nd trimester of their pregnancy, the frequency of women who had more than one baby was higher among smokers than among non-smokers , about (62.8%) of the subjects were low socio economic status. Analysis of results by (chi-square test) show that (maternal occupation, parity, socio economic status, health problems, and stress) were significant factors associated with anemia. This study shows the rate of smoking during pregnancy was 34.4%, factors that were associated with higher rate of smoking were unemployment, parity, smoking was more related with low socio economic status, health problems and stress.


Smoking very important health problems most countries in the world. According to cause of preventable mortality in some countries [1,2]. The public health society makes focus on efforts to educate the population around the risks of smoking. These dangers are harmful. Many studies have found that females who smoked throughout pre gnancy had higher exposed for pre mature birth, birth and spontaneous abortion, low birth weight , and newborns deaths [3,4]. As well as , "death syndrome" in infants, and "respiratory diseases" in children has been linked to mother s smoking behind birth and fetus exposure to those half hand smoke [5]. Smoking lead to a threat both to the mother s and her newborns expect. Tobacco causes for many complications consist of miscarriage caused by tobacco, deaths caused by disturbances in the perinatal period and newborns requiring admission to the intensive care unit for newborns [6], low birth weight [7,8], and mortality resulting from "sudden infant death syndrome" [8]. Cigarette smoking lead to increase the danger of in fertility and delayed pregnancy [9], and adverse pregnancy outcomes, for example, placental abruption, stillbirth, premature birth [10] Smoking pregnant mothers of preterm birth also raises the risk [11]. Smoking responsible of death in many countries females are higher smokers and the cigarette is cause for nearly five million mortality a year [12]. The percentage of men smokers are higher than female. It has shows decline in pre valence in developed countries[13]. Accompanied by many of Mother factors and father related to smoking during gestation; such as, female who smoke throughout pregnancy are more young, [14], have an economic position of social lower and the low level of education low income [15], and the pregnancy more unplanned [16] of the female who did not smoking by pre gnancy. Similar to a study done in London, they are less likely to engage in behaviors associated with health or to feel responsible for the health of children [17] pregnant women who smoke. And it increased differences in smoking rates, according to the mother s life in Denmark [18].

Materials and methods

A cross- sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in Al- Karkh teaching hospital and Bab-almoadham primary health center. The sample was selected (non probability convenient sampling),  pregnant women were selected with the exception of those who fulfilled the pre defined criteria of pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia or chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes which include 276 samples.
The study has started from 1st June to 30th October 2015. The data were collected by direct interview using special questionnaire .information included socio demographic data (age, education and occupation), obstetrical history (gestational age and parity) and socio economic status.

Socio-economic status scales (SESS): SES is defined in terms of a standard sociological paradigm consisting of three components: (a) occupation ; (b) education;


Table (1) shows that (276) pregnant women that were in age group (25-29) years & mean age of them was ( 29.02± 6.7) years. As for education (32.6 %) were primary education, and about (49.6%) were housewives and about (34.8%) of pregnant women have 1-3 child , about 43.5% were non smokers and 34.4% were smokers.


It has long been known mother s smoking throughout pre gnancy to be a danger factor for morbidity and mortality of newborns, including low birth weight, shortened pregnancy, premature birth, birth weight [22]. In this study, most of the pregnant women belongs to the age 25-29 years and the mean age of pregnant women was 29.02 ± 6.7 years. The finding of the present study is agreement with findings reported in Istanbul [23], in Brazil [24], in Japan [25], and in Switzerland [26], and in Canada [27], they have identified the mothers current age was positively associated with smoking with p-value <0.000. This could be explained by the extreme ages of reproductive years are well known risk factors for smoking during pregnancy. This study shows that about (49.6%) of pregnant women were housewives, this result confirms the finding in Turkey [28] , found a high percentage (79.4%) of the pregnant women were housewives this could be a possible reason for women having health problem during their pregnancy [29]. 34.4% of the subjects were smokers while (43.5%) were non-smokers and (16.5%) had passive smokers disagrees finding were reported in Canada [27], in Brazil [24], in US [30], they found (55.4 %) are non-smokers, (25.5%) were smokers, a possible explanation for this may be due to the contrast in time and place of the studies and selection of study population. Gestational age variables strongly associated with smoking in pregnancy p – value <0.000, similar finding were reported in Canada [27], found that the pre valence of smoking in the 3rd trimester were (10.5%). This may be due to failure to attend ante natal classes and stressful events pre and during pre gnancy [27]. . Parity have significant association with smoking in pregnancy with p– value <0.000 this result confirms the finding in Brazil [24], and in Switzerland [26], they found significant association between parity &smoking p – value (0.002), this could be a possible reason for women having low health education and gave birth to a healthy child [31,32]. Smokers during pregnancy had a higher frequency of reporting low socio economic status, similar finding were reported in Japan [25], in Switzerland [26], and in Canada [27], they found Smokers during pregnancy was related to low socio- economic status, And may be because females had a higher frequency to continue smoking economic problems [25]. The present study shows that pregnant women who had smokers had higher rate of health problems about (54.8%), this result confirms the finding in Brazil [24], found that women who smoked during pre gnancy had a higher frequency of complications for examples placenta previa, and, premature birth, ectopic pregnancy, and birth weight, low birth weight, and mortality of newborns, and weakness of the child s physical growth, and this may be due to drug use is a growing problems that is related to significant morbidity mother and fetus [33]. The present study shows that pregnant women who had smokers had higher rate of stress about (51.6%), this result confirms the finding in Brazil [24], in Switzerland [26], and in Canada [27], they found that stress have significant association with smoking during pregnancy, And this may be due to starvations and not have the job in these societies may be important causes for these higher frequency [34].


This study shows the frequency of women who had more than one baby was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers , factors that were associated with higher rate of smoking were unemployment, parity, smoking was more related with low socio economic status, health problems and stress.


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